An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks[omnet++code]

An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks

An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks GRADUALLY, the conventional distribution networks An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks[omnet++code](DNs) have been transformed into active ones with the integration of large-scale renewable resources. The application of distributed generators (DGs), or energy-storage units, can feed the loads with high-quality, highly available, and cost-efficient energy. As the technical issues, such as grid-connected control and energy management are

An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks resolved, the active DNs (ADNs) open more access to different types of DGs and support the plug-and-play functionality Besides, microgrids, as automatic communities of DGs and loads, further improve the power-supply continuity by islanding operation during utility grids’ faults. The ADNs introduce an advanced power-supply pattern and a new concept of energy consumption, which are viewed as one of most predominant parts of future smart grids In order to enhance the effectiveness of ADNs, it is required that all the technical issues caused by th

 

An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Network

e interconnection of DGs are solved. Although a lot of research has been conducted on these issues,many problems have not been solved yet One of the most crucial challenges is the protection schemes for feeders An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks inADNs. The architecture of ADNs, penetration degree, operation characteristics, and fault conditions of DGs, bidirectional power flow, and the flexible operation modes all probably lead to the maloperation of conventional feeder relays Consequently, designing a satisfactory protection scheme to guarantee safety operation will further increase the service continuity and quality. In differential current protection was presented to prevent the important feeders from contingencies. Actually, it is more suitable to use third-party public-switched data networks, wireless fidelity, or industry Ethernet in ADNs from the economic standpoint The time cost is longer than that of synchronous data hierarchy used in high-voltage systems, in the sense that those proposed algorithms may lose their effectiveness in ADNs. References proposed protections based on multiagent systems, An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks which run online or offline. These protections, however, are difficult to apply in practice for the huge capital-investment and the complicated coordination. Reference explored a communication-assisted directional comparison scheme which enables time delay in data synchronization. Due to t

he low impedance of the feeders on ADNs, the fault direction is hard to estimate under three-phase faults. Besides the proposed protections depending on communication technologies, a lot of protection methods that only make use of single-end information have been studied, for example, An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks negative/ zero-sequence current protection, distance protection, and undervoltage protection These strategies proposed in are essentially difficult to calculate and coordinate with each other since the equivalent impedances of inverter-interfaced DGs are determined by control methods. An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks Furthermore, the aforementioned protections, in particular, for feeders at the low-voltage (LV) level are significantly affected by the fault impedance. Reference proposed a protection method utilizing An Impedance Protection Scheme for Feeders of Active Distribution Networks the total admittance of the protected line segment. Since the line length in ADNs is always short, the protection can only cover a very small part of the segment